The Museum-Apartment was opened in 1949, by the 100-anniversary of the great physiologist, at the 7-th Line of Vasilievsky Island, 2, apt. 11. The apartment was given to I. P. Pavlov by the Academy of Sciences; he lived here for the last 18 years of his life and died there on February 27, 1936. By the decree of the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences of August 6, 1949, the Museum was transferred to the possession of I. P. Pavlov Institute of Physiology of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
The entire furniture and decoration are authentic and preserved in the same appearance as during I.P. Pavlov's life. Initially the director and curator of the Museum was I.P. Pavlov's daughter, Vera Ivanovna Pavlova. At that time the Museum was composed of the study room, bedroom, and hall. After V. I. Pavlova's death (1964), the Museum was expanded, its memorial part was added by the dining room and anteroom. A separate space was used for the scientific-popular exposition. The study room of I. P. Pavlov represents a part of the room separated from bedroom by bookcases. The center of the study room is occupied by the writing table at which I. P. Pavlov was working in the evenings, from 9 p.m. to midnight. Placed on the table are writing-materials and photographs. In front of the table there is an easel with the portrait of I. P. Pavlov's wife Serafima Vasilievna Pavlova. Her portrait was made in 1933 by the painter M. V. Nesterov who presented it as a gift to I. P. Pavlov. To the left of the table is a bookstand with I. P. Pavlov's books published during his life. Standing on the bookstand is a small gypsum figure of D. I. Mendeleev, a gift of its author, sculptor I. Ginzburg as a souvenir about the first University examination passed in 1871 by the student Ivan Pavlov to this famous scientist. Around the table are bookcases and stands for books with works on philosophy, political economy (included the first edition of « Capital » by K. Marx), history, biology, physiology, and medicine. Stored in a separate bookcase are books of I. P. Pavlov's favorite Russian and foreign authors – A. S. Pushkin, M. Yu. Lermontov, L. N. Tolstoi, W. Goethe, F. Schiller, and many others. Standing on one of the bookcases is a small white toy dog gifted to I. P. Pavlov by English students at the day of awarding him the title of the Honored Doctor of Cambridge University in 1912. The journal table contains a joke prize – a framed photo of the Koltushi Biostation staff, fans of gorodki, with inscription: « To the master of the gorodki guild Ivan Petrovich Pavlov. 70 years of love and mutual fidelity, 1929 » – an evidence of a particular Pavlov's love for this ancient Russian game.
Hanging on the walls are many photoportraits and group photographs including those of the famous German physiologists K. Ludwig, R. Heidenhain. H. Helmholtz; in their laboratories Pavlov was working during his young years, as well as photographs of his friends and comrades in the Military Medical Academy.
The smaller part of the same room is occupied by the bedroom. It is decorated modestly – a wardrobe, a locker, an ancient wash-stand, and two cast-iron beds that were purchased (together with carved bookcases) in 1890 spending his first Professor salary. On the bedroom walls are photographs of relatives, above the beds, reproductions of engravings of Madonnas from paintings by Murillo, Rafael, Defregger, and V. M. Vasnetsov. On the left from the entrance to the study room there is Serafima Vasilievna's small working table, in front of it, on the wall, photographs of Ivan Petrovich and their children – Vladimir (1884–1954), Vera (1890–1954), Victor (1892–1919), and Vsevolod (1893–1935). Hanging on the same wall is the known portrait of I. P. Pavlov, made by M. V. Nesterov (the author's replica, canvas, oil, 1933), a gift of the painter. Here also are more of M. V. Nesterov's works – the sketch «Stesha» (oil, canvas) and a pen portrait of Vera Ivanovna with the painter's autographs, as well as paintings of N. V. Sergeev, S. A. Vinogradov, Vladimir and Konstantin Makovskys, miniatures of A. Brullov, etc. I. P. Pavlov collected only the Russian masters.
The largest, front room – the hall – is furnished with two furniture suits for the rest, made by the Russian masters of the first half of the XIX century. It also contains a grand piano – a gift to I. P. Pavlov from his brother Dmitry. Ivan Petrovich himself did not play, but liked listening to music; on Sundays there often gathered here for playing music his closest assistants: N. I. Krasnogorsky and P. S. Kupalov playing the grand piano and viola and A. D. Speransky playing excellently the violin.
In 1934 in this hall, in honor of I. P. Pavlov's 85-anniversary, the M. P. Musorgsky's opera « Khovanshchina » was performed by artists of S. M. Kirov Theater of Opera and Ballet.
The main decoration of the hall is the collection of paintings of the Russian artists, such as M. V. Nesterov, N. N. Dubovskoi, G. I. Semigadsky, A. Rylov, A. Benois, V. Vershinin, A. Schielder, I. Schultze, and others. The central place among them is occupied by the paintings « Bogatyrs » (the Russian Strong Men) and the « Snow-Maiden » (the author's replica by V. M. Vasnetsov). (At present, only a part of Pavlov's collection purchased by the Institute is exposed in the Museum). Here three sculptures by L. Posen are exposed – « Bandura Players » (bronze), « A Soldier of the Nicholas I time » (bronze), and « Old Beggar » (gypsum). A peculiar combination of the solemnity and coziness is provided with angular mirrors, old carpets on the floor, a skin of the gray bear (a gift of V. V. Savich), a bronze luster, and flowers in flower-pots.
The dining room is decorated with the hand-made carved oak suite by the Russian masters. The walls are painted with a hand-made « walnut » ; hanging on them are still lives by K. Makovsky and Yu. Yu. Klever and a scene work by K. Stepanov « The Scene with a Broken Bottle » . On a special small table are a samovar and a coffee-machine, above the semi-buffet the wall clock of the P. Buré Company. Near the window in the dining hall there are many flowers, the same as those during I. P. Pavlov's life. Also present here are two collections of butterflies caught and systematized by the scientist during his youth. Standing in the middle of the dining room is the sliding dinner table at which Pavlov's family gathered and guests were received.
Among I. P. Pavlov's guests in 1931 was A. M. Gorky; during the last years of his life I. P. Pavlov was visited by the painter M. V. Nesterov. His guests also were such prominent scientists as N. Bohr, P. Yerks, W. Cannon, and others.
The memorial part of the Museum also includes the exhibition room containing the scientific-popular exposition illustrating I. P. Pavlov's years of his studies in Petersburg University and Medical Surgical Academy, the main stages of his scientific creativity and discoveries in the field of physiology of blood circulation, digestion, and his creation of the new field of physiology – the higher nervous activity. In 1904, for his investigations on digestion, I. P. Pavlov was the first among the Russian scientists and the first among the world physiologists to be awarded the Nobel Prize. In the center of the exposition is the Decree of the Council of the People Commissars signed by V. I. Lenin on January 24, 1921, about the recognition of the great significance of I. P. Pavlov's works and about the maximal help in his work. A special attention in the exposition is paid to patriotism and the civil virtue of this scientist who devoted all his strength to serving his country.
The Museum carries out a great excursion work by serving numerous groups (students of institutes, technical secondary schools, the Military Medical Academy, school children, teachers, physicians, collective groups of tourist tours of the City Excursion Bureau) and individual visitors. About 5000 visitors are acquainted annually with the Museum, among them more than 200 foreigners. The Museum staff provides consultation assistance to pedagogues, guides, journalists, and TV workers in creation of exhibitions and documental movies devoted to I. P. Pavlov.
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I. P. PAVLOV MUSEUM IN KOLTUSHI
In 1926, in Koltushi, by I. P. Pavlov's initiative, Biological Station was founded. It was used as an accessory factory to obtain fodder and to maintain experimental animals. Later the Biostation was expanded to a research campus with a number of the first-class laboratories in which investigations of physiology of the higher nervous activity were carried out.
One of the first buildings in Koltushi, in 1933, the building of Laboratory of genetics of the higher nervous activity was built (by the architect I. F. Bezpalov). By I. P. Pavlov's instructions, placed on the building pediment were the words « Experimental genetics of the higher nervous activity » , while on the tower, « Observation and observation » . In front of the laboratory, busts of R. Descartes, G. Mendel, and I. M. Sechenov were installed. The bust of I. P. Pavlov himself was installed soon after his death, and in the early 1959s, Ch. Darwin's bust.
The first floor was occupied by surgery room, library, room for technicians, and a number of other rooms. Exposed on the second floor were living rooms for Biostation researchers and a small I. P. Pavlov's apartment that consisted of the sitting room, bedroom, children's room, and study room that was adjacent to a glass verandah.
After I. P. Pavlov's death the sitting room hall began to be used as an auditorium for scientific meetings, while in rooms of researchers the chambers for studies on conditional reflexes were placed. In 1949, by the 100-anniversary of I. P. Pavlov, by initiative of Academician L. A. Orbeli, a small memorial was founded. Its basis consisted of the study room and verandah that preserved their initial appearance.
Above the table in the study room is one of the last I. P. Pavlov's portraits made during his life by the painter I. I. Brodsky.
The exposition on the verandah contains I. P. Pavlov's personal belongings (bicycle, gorodki) and some of his photographs. Here, at the verandah, the painter M. V. Nesterov made one of I. P. Pavlov's portraits showing the scientist at the table. At present this portraits is exposed in the Moscow Tretiakov's Gallery, its copy at the verandah made by S. F. Bobkov. The memorial part of the Museum is added by other exhibition items.
Thus, the dinner table and buffet are preserved in the hall. Photographs made at various years show I. P. Pavlov in the toga of the Honored Doctor of Cambridge University (1912); during the work of several International physiological congresses (in particular, with members of the Organizing Committee of the XV International Congress of Physiologists) and of the X International Congress of Psychologists in Copenhagen. Also exposed in the hall is the photograph of the monument to I. P. Pavlov raised at the entrance to Leiden University (the Netherlands).
On the walls of the corridor leading to I. P. Pavlov's apartment also there are many photographs of the scientist, For instance, some of them reflect his everyday research activity and the spare time, others show him together with the English writer Herbert Wells and with the Danish physicist Niels Bohr who were visiting Koltushi.
Here exposed is the diarama « The Pavlovian Koltushi at the period of 1926–1933 » and the panorama « New Koltushi. 1979 » made in the 1970s.
The Museum exposition also includes the soundproof chamber for elaboration of conditional reflexes.
The Museum staff annually performs several tens of excursions for more than 800 people. These are mainly students of Biological and Psychological Faculties of Universities, Medical and Pedagogical Schools, Courses of Advance Training of Physicians and Teachers, teachers of Departments of Physiology. As a rule, the Museum is visited by participants of various International and Russian forums on various problems of physiology and medicine.
A great interest to Koltushi and I. P. Pavlov's Museum is paid by foreign scientists coming to St. Petersburg.
Traditional close connections with the Institute have been established in Koltushi I. P. Pavlov high school; its students regularly attend excursions in the Museum; excursion groups of schoolchildren often come here from St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Province.